sed(1)                                                        sed(1)
 
 
       NAME
             sed - stream editor
 
       SYNOPSIS
             sed [-n] [-e script] [-f sfile] [file . . .]
 
       DESCRIPTION
             sed copies the named file (standard input default) to the
             standard output, edited according to a script of commands.
             The -f option causes the script to be taken from file sfile;
             these options accumulate.  If there is just one -e option and
             no -f options, the flag -e may be omitted.  The -n option
             suppresses the default output.
 
             sed processes supplementary code set characters, and
             recognizes supplementary code set characters in script file
             comments (see below) according to the locale specified in the
             LC_CTYPE environment variable [see LANG on environ(5)], except
             as noted under the y command below.  In regular expressions,
             pattern searches are performed on characters, not bytes, as
             described on ed(1).
 
             A script consists of editing commands, one per line, of the
             following form:
 
                   [address [, address]] function [arguments]
 
             In normal operation, sed cyclically copies a line of input
             into a pattern space (unless there is something left after a D
             command), applies in sequence all commands whose addresses
             select that pattern space, and at the end of the script copies
             the pattern space to the standard output (except under -n) and
             deletes the pattern space.
 
             Some of the commands use a hold space to save all or part of
             the pattern space for subsequent retrieval.
 
             An address is either a decimal number that counts input lines
             cumulatively across files, a $ that addresses the last line of
             input, or a context address, that is, a ⁄regular expression⁄
             in the style of ed(1) modified thus:
 
                   In a context address, the construction \?regular
                   expression?, where ?  is any character, is identical to
                   ⁄regular expression⁄.  Note that in the context address
                   \xabc\xdefx, the second x stands for itself, so that the
                   regular expression is abcxdef.
 
                   The escape sequence \n matches a new-line embedded in
                   the pattern space.
 
                   A period (.)  matches any character except the terminal
                   new-line of the pattern space.
 
                   A command line with no addresses selects every pattern
                   space.
 
                   A command line with one address selects each pattern
                   space that matches the address.
 
                   A command line with two addresses selects the inclusive
                   range from the first pattern space that matches the
                   first address through the next pattern space that
                   matches the second address.  (If the second address is a
                   number less than or equal to the line number selected by
                   the first address, only the line corresponding to the
                   first address is selected.)  Thereafter the process is
                   repeated, looking again for the first address.
 
             Editing commands can be applied only to non-selected pattern
             spaces by use of the negation function !  (below).
 
             In the following list of functions the maximum number of
             permissible addresses for each function is indicated in
             parentheses.
 
             The text argument consists of one or more lines, all but the
             last of which end with \ to hide the new-line.  Backslashes in
             text are treated like backslashes in the replacement string of
             an s command.  The rfile or wfile argument must terminate the
             command line and must be preceded by exactly one blank.  Each
             wfile is created before processing begins.  There can be at
             most 10 distinct wfile arguments.
 
             (1)a\
             text      Append.  Place text on the output before reading the
                       next input line.
 
             (2)b label
                       Branch to the : command bearing the label.  If label
                       is empty, branch to the end of the script.
 
             (2)c\
             text      Change.  Delete the pattern space.  Place text on
                       the output.  Start the next cycle.
 
             (2)d      Delete the pattern space.  Start the next cycle.
 
             (2)D      Delete the initial segment of the pattern space
                       through the first new-line.  Start the next cycle.
 
             (0)E      Delete the contents of the hold space.
 
             (2)g      Replace the contents of the pattern space by the
                       contents of the hold space.
 
             (2)G      Append the contents of the hold space to the pattern
                       space.
 
             (2)h      Replace the contents of the hold space by the
                       contents of the pattern space.
 
             (2)H      Append the contents of the pattern space to the hold
                       space.
 
             (1)i\
             text      Insert.  Place text on the standard output.
 
             (2)l      List the pattern space on the standard output in an
                       unambiguous form.  Non-printable characters are
                       displayed in octal notation and long lines are
                       folded.
 
             (2)n      Copy the pattern space to the standard output.
                       Replace the pattern space with the next line of
                       input.
 
             (2)N      Append the next line of input to the pattern space
                       with an embedded new-line.  (The current line number
                       changes.)
 
             (2)p      Print.  Copy the pattern space to the standard
                       output.
 
             (2)P      Copy the initial segment of the pattern space
                       through the first new-line to the standard output.
 
             (1)q      Quit.  Branch to the end of the script.  Do not
                       start a new cycle.
 
             (2)r rfile
                       Read the contents of rfile.  Place them on the
                       output before reading the next input line.
 
             (2)s⁄regular expression⁄replacement⁄flags
                       Substitute the replacement string for instances of
                       the regular expression in the pattern space.  Any
                       character may be used instead of ⁄.  For a fuller
                       description see ed(1).  flags is zero or more of:
 
                       n       n= 1 - 512.  Substitute for just the nth
                               occurrence of the regular expression.
 
                       g       Global.  Substitute for all nonoverlapping
                               instances of the regular expression rather
                               than just the first one.
 
                       p       Print the pattern space if a replacement was
                               made.
 
                       w wfile Write.  Append the pattern space to wfile if
                               a replacement was made.
 
             (2)t label
                       Test.  Branch to the : command bearing the label if
                       any substitutions have been made since the most
                       recent reading of an input line or execution of a t.
                       If label is empty, branch to the end of the script.
 
             (2)w wfile
                       Write.  Append the pattern space to wfile.  The
                       first occurrence of w will cause wfile to be
                       cleared.  Subsequent invocations of w will append.
                       Each time the sed command is used, wfile is
                       overwritten.
 
             (2)x      Exchange the contents of the pattern and hold
                       spaces.
 
             (2)y⁄string1⁄string2⁄
                       Transform.  Replace all occurrences of characters in
                       string1 with the corresponding characters in
                       string2.  string1 and string2 must have the same
                       number of characters.  The result is not guaranteed
                       when supplementary code set characters are specified
                       in the strings.
 
             (2)! function
                       Don't.  Apply the function (or group, if function is
                       {) only to lines not selected by the address(es).
 
             (0): label
                       This command does nothing; it bears a label for b
                       and t commands to branch to.
 
             (1)=      Place the current line number on the standard output
                       as a line.
 
             (2){      Execute the following commands through a matching }
                       only when the pattern space is selected.
 
             (0)       An empty command is ignored.
 
             (0)#      If a # appears as the first character on a line of a
                       script file, then that entire line is treated as a
                       comment, with one exception: if a # appears on the
                       first line and the character after the # is an n,
                       then the default output will be suppressed.  The
                       rest of the line after #n is also ignored.  A script
                       file must contain at least one non-comment line.
                       Comments may contain supplementary code set
                       characters.
 
       FILES
             ⁄usr⁄lib⁄locale⁄locale⁄LC_MESSAGES⁄uxcore.abi
                   language-specific message file [See LANG on environ(5).]
 
       REFERENCES
             awk(1), ed(1), grep(1)
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