^D exits adb
$c prints stack trace
adb(CP)                        6 January 1993                        adb(CP)
    adb - invokes a general-purpose debugger.
    adb [-w] [-p prompt ] [ objfil [ corefile ]
    adb is a general purpose debugging program.  It may be used to examine
    files and to provide a controlled environment for the execution of
    objfil is normally an executable file of either XENIX or COFF format,
    preferably containing a symbol table; if not then the symbolic features
    of adb cannot be used although the file can still be examined.  The
    default filename for objfil is a.out.  corefile is assumed to be a core
    image file produced after executing objfil; the default for corefile is
    Requests to adb are read from standard input.  If the -w option is speci-
    fied, both objfil and corefile are created if necessary and opened for
    reading and writing.  The QUIT and INTERRUPT keys cause adb to return to
    the next command.  The -p option defines the prompt string, which may be
    any combination of characters.  The default is an asterisk (*).
    In general requests to adb are of the form:
       [address]  [, count] [command] [;]
    If address is present then the current position in the file (called dot)
    is set to the value given by address.  Initially dot is set to 0.  For
    most commands count specifies how many times the command will be exe-
    cuted.  The default count is 1.  address is a special expression having
    the form:
    where segment gives the address of a specific text or data segment, and
    offset gives an offset from the beginning of that segment.  If segment is
    not given, the last segment value given in a command is used.
    The interpretation of an address depends on the context in which it is
    used.  If a subprocess is being debugged then addresses are interpreted
    in the usual way in the address space of the subprocess.  For further
    details of address mapping see ``Addresses''.
    .      The value of dot.
    +      The value of dot incremented by the current increment.
    ^      The value of dot decremented by the current increment.
    "      The last address typed.
           An octal number if integer begins with a 0; a hexadecimal number
           if preceded by # or 0x; otherwise a decimal number.
           A 32-bit floating point number.
    'cccc' The ASCII value of up to 4 characters.  ``\'' may be used to
           escape a '.
    <name  The value of name, which is either a variable name or a register
           name.  adb maintains a number of variables (see ``Variables'')
           named by single letters or digits.  If name is a register name
           then the value of the register is obtained from the system header
           in corefile.  The 286 register names are ax bx cx dx di si bp fl
           ip cs ds ss es sp.  The 386 register names are eax ebx ecx edx edi
           esi ebp esp.  The name fl refers to the status flags.
    symbol A symbol is a sequence of upper or lower case letters, underscores
           or digits, not starting with a digit.  ``\'' may be used to escape
           other characters.  The value of the symbol is taken from the sym-
           bol table in objfil.  An initial _ or ~ will be prepended to sym-
           bol if needed.
           In C, the ``true name'' of an external symbol begins with an
           underscore (_).  It may be necessary to use this name to distin-
           guish it from internal or hidden variables of a program.
    (exp)  The value of the expression exp.
    Monadic operators
    *exp   The contents of the location addressed by exp.
    -exp   Integer negation.
    ~exp   Bitwise complement.
    Dyadic operators
    Dyadic operators are left-associative and are less binding than monadic
    e1+e2  Integer addition.
    e1-e2  Integer subtraction.
    e1*e2  Integer multiplication.
    e1%e2  Integer division.
    e1&e2  Bitwise conjunction.
    e1|e2  Bitwise disjunction.
    e1^e2  Remainder after division of e1 by e2.
    e1#e2  e1 rounded up to the next multiple of e2.
    Most commands consist of a verb followed by a modifier or list of modif-
    iers.  The following verbs are available.  (The commands ? and ⁄ may be
    followed by *; see ``Addresses'' for further details.)
    ?f  Locations starting at text address in objfil are printed according to
        the format f.
    ⁄f  Locations starting at data address in corefile are printed according
        to the format f.
    =f  The value of address itself is printed in the styles indicated by the
        format f.  (For i format ``?'' is printed for the parts of the
        instruction that reference subsequent words.)
    A format consists of one or more characters that specify a style of
    printing.  Each format character may be preceded by a decimal integer
    that is a repeat count for the format character.  While stepping through
    a format dot is incremented temporarily by the amount given for each for-
    mat letter.  If no format is given then the last format is used.  The
    format letters available are as follows:
    Letter                           Format
    o                                2 bytes in octal
    O                                4 bytes in octal
    q                                2 bytes in signed octal
    Q                                4 bytes in signed long octal
    d                                2 bytes in decimal
    D                                4 bytes in decimal
    x                                2 bytes in hexadecimal
    X                                4 bytes in hexadecimal
    u                                2 bytes as an unsigned integer
    U                                4 bytes as an unsigned integer
    f                                4 bytes in floating point
    F                                8 bytes in floating point
    b                                1 address byte in octal
    c                                1 byte as a character
    C                                1 byte as a character using the follow-
                                     ing escape convention.  Character values
                                     000 to 040 are printed as an at-sign (@)
                                     followed by the corresponding character
                                     in octal range 0100 to 0140. The at-sign
                                     character itself is printed as @@.
    s                                Prints the addressed characters until a
                                     zero character is reached.
    S                                Prints a string using the at-sign (@)
                                     escape convention When n is a length of
                                     the string including its zero termina-
    Y                                4 bytes in date format. See ctime(S).
    i                                Machine instructions.  n is the number
                                     of bytes occupied by the instruction.
                                     This style of printing causes variable 1
                                     and 2 to be set the the offset parts of
                                     the source and destination respectively.
    a                                The current symbolic address. Symbols
                                     are checked to ensure that they have an
                                     appropriate type as indicated below:
                                          ⁄    local or global data symbols
                                          ?    local or global text symbols
                                          =    local or global absolute sym-
    A                                The current absolute address
    p                                Prints the addressed value in symbolic
                                     form using the same rules for symbol
                                     lookup as a
    t                                A horizontal TAB
    r                                A blank space
    n                                A Newline
    '...'                            Prints the enclosed string
    ^                                Decrements dot by the current increment.
                                     Nothing is printed
    =                                Increments dot by 1. Nothing is printed
    -                                Decrements dot by 1. Nothing is printed
    +                                Increments dot by 1. Nothing is printed
       If the previous command temporarily incremented dot, makes the incre-
       ment permanent.  Repeat the previous command with a count of 1.
    [?⁄]l value mask
       Words starting at dot are masked with mask and compared with value
       until a match is found.  If L is used then the match is for 4 bytes at
       a time instead of 2.  If no match is found then dot is unchanged; oth-
       erwise dot is set to the matched location.  If mask is omitted then -1
       is used.
    [?⁄]w value ...
       Writes the 2-byte value into the addressed location.  If the command
       is W, writes 4 bytes.  Odd addresses are not allowed when writing to
       the subprocess address space.
    [?⁄]m segnum fpos size
       Sets new values for the given segment's file position and size.  If
       size is not given, then only the file position is changed.  The segnum
       must the segment number of a segment already in the memory map (see
       ``Addresses'').  If ? is given, a text segment is affected; if ⁄ a
       data segment.
    [?⁄]M segnum fpos size
       Creates a new segment in the memory map.  The segment is given file
       position fpos and physical size size.  The segnum must not already
       exist in the memory map.  If ? is given, a text segment is created; if
       ⁄ a data segment.
       dot is assigned to the variable or register named.
    !  A shell is called to read the rest of the line following !.
       Miscellaneous commands.  The available modifiers are:
       <f  Read commands from the file f and return.
       >f  Send output to the file f, which is created if it does not exist.
       r   Print the general registers and the instruction addressed by ip.
           Dot is set to ip.
       f   Print the floating registers in single or double length.
       b   Print all breakpoints and their associated counts and commands.
       c   C stack backtrace.  If address is given then it is taken as the
           address of the current frame (instead of bp).  If count is given
           then only the first count frames are printed.  This command is
           case insensitive.
       e   The names and values of external variables are printed.
       w   Set the page width for output to address (default 80).
       s   Set the limit for symbol matches to address (default 255).
       o   Sets input and output default format to octal.
       d   Sets input and output default format to decimal.
       x   Sets input and output default format to hexadecimal.
       q   Exit from adb.
       v   Print all non zero variables in octal.
       m   Print the address map.
       Manage a subprocess.  Available modifiers are:
       br  Set breakpoint at address.  The breakpoint is executed count-1
           times before causing a stop.  Each time the breakpoint is encoun-
           tered the command c is executed.  If this command sets dot to zero
           then the breakpoint causes a stop.
       dl  Delete breakpoint at address.
           Run objfil as a subprocess.  If address is given explicitly then
           the program is entered at this point; otherwise the program is
           entered at its standard entry point.  count specifies how many
           breakpoints are to be ignored before stopping.  arguments to the
           subprocess may be supplied on the same line as the command.  An
           argument starting with < or > causes the standard input or output
           to be established for the command.  All signals are turned on on
           entry to the subprocess.
           Same as the r command except that arguments are passed through a
           shell before being passed to to the program.  This means shell
           metacharacters can be used in filenames.
       co  The subprocess is continued and signal s is passed to it, see
           signal(S).  If address is given then the subprocess is continued
           at this address.  If no signal is specified then the signal that
           caused the subprocess to stop is sent.  Breakpoint skipping is the
           same as for r.
       s   As for co except that the subprocess is single stepped count
           times.  If there is no current subprocess then objfil is run as a
           subprocess as for r.  In this case no signal can be sent; the
           remainder of the line is treated as arguments to the subprocess.
       k   The current subprocess, if any, is terminated.
    adb provides a number of variables.  Named variables are set initially by
    adb but are not used subsequently.  Numbered variables are reserved for
    communication as follows.
    0  The last value printed.
    1  The last offset part of an instruction source.
    2  The previous value of variable 1.
    On entry the following are set from the system header in the corefile.
    If corefile does not appear to be a core file then these values are set
    from objfil:
    b  The base address of the data segment.
    d  The data segment size.
    e  The entry point.
    m  The execution type.
    n  The number of segments.
    s  The stack segment size.
    t  The text segment size.
    Addresses in adb refer to either a location in a file or in actual mem-
    ory.  When there is no current process in memory, adb addresses are com-
    puted as file locations, and requested text and data are read from the
    objfil and corefile files.  When there is a process, such as after a :r
    command, addresses are computed as actual memory locations.
    All text and data segments in a program have associated memory map
    entries.  Each entry has a unique segment number.  In addition, each
    entry has the file position of that segment's first byte, and the physi-
    cal size of the segment in the file.  When a process is running, a
    segment's entry has a virtual size which defines the size of the segment
    in memory at the current time.  This size can change during execution.
    When a address is given and no process is running, the file location cor-
    responding to the address is calculated as:
       effective-file-address = file-position  + offset
    If a process is running, the memory location is simply the offset in the
    given segment.  These addresses are valid if and only if
       0 <= offset <= size
    where size is physical size for file locations and virtual size for mem-
    ory locations.  Otherwise, the requested address is not legal.
    The initial setting of both mappings is suitable for normal a.out and
    core files.  If either file is not of the kind expected then, for that
    file, file position is set to 0, and size is set to the maximum file
    size.  In this way, the whole file can be examined with no address trans-
    So that adb may be used on large files, all appropriate values are kept
    as signed 32 bit integers.
    The message ``adb'' appears when there is no current command or format.
    Comments about inaccessible files, syntax errors, abnormal termination of
    commands, etc.
    Exit status is 0, unless last command failed or returned nonzero status.
    A breakpoint set at the entry point is not effective on initial entry to
    the program.
    System calls cannot be single stepped.
    Local variables whose names are the same as an external variable may foul
    up the accessing of the external.
    COFF or x.out format files are accepted and read transparently.
See also
    ptrace(S), a.out(FP), core(FP)
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